Land and Semiaquatic Carnivores, Ungulates and Bats

Three galleries feature in the photo album. The first displays land and semiaquatic carnivores placed in the order Carnivora. The second features even-towed ungulates which belong to order Artiodactyla and the final gallery displays bats from order Chiroptera. See Taxonomy note at the end of this page.

Land and Semiaquatic Carnivores

Land and Semiaquatic Notes

The smooth-coated otter is ‘Red List 2020-2’ assessed as ‘Vulnerable’ while the red fox assessed as ‘Least Concern’.

Red Foxes are a common resident in most of the Northern Hemisphere and introduced into Australia. They occupy a wide range of habitats, including urban environments.

Smooth-coated Otter distribution is Indian and SE Asia. I photographed these in Singapore. Thought to be extinct in Singapore during the ’60s and ’70s they’ve made a comeback with Sungei Buloh Wetlands Reserve’s initial sightings during the ‘90s. In recent years they have expanded out from Sungei Buloh adapting to Singapore’s urban environment now with around ten families present in parks and gardens across the island. I have identified the species as a Smooth-coated Otter; however, there is evidence that in Singapore the population is a rare hybrid between Lutrogale perspicillata and Oriental Small-clawed Otter Aonyx cinereaI.

Even-towed Ungulates

Even-towed Ungulate Notes

The displayed feral and semi-feral species have not been ‘Red List 2020-2’ assessed. Other featured species ‘Least Concern’.

Southern Red Muntjac is a Muntjac (Barking Deer) species also known as Red or Indian Muntjac, the genus (Muntiacus) is native to South and Southeast Asia. Nocturnal but can be active during the day in areas where there are no threats. Found in forests and venturing into nearby grassland to graze.

White-tailed Deer are native to North, Central north-east South America. Habitat preference is open woodland and found in other environments such as farmland, grassland, and wetland.

Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is a cosmopolitan species the nominate species is native to the Palearctic region and sometimes referred to as a Eurasian Wild Pig. I photographed subspecies S. s. vittatus in Singapore and Malaysia locally referred to as a Banded or Wild Pig. They occupy a wide variety of habitats including grassland, woodland, swamps provided there is a water source and dense vegetation for shelter.

Water Buffalo (Feral): Wild Water buffalo live in the tropical and subtropical forests of Asia. Humans have domesticated them for thousands of years to provide meat, milk, leather, transport, and pull ploughs. An endangered species in the wild but in Australia; where I photographed them; they are an invasive species with established larger feral populations in the northern floodplains.

Goat (Feral): Domestic goats are cosmopolitan, originally a Palearctic native species and introduced almost worldwide. Early settlers introduced them in Australia, but now feral populations are an invasive species having a significant impact on native vegetation.

Exmoor Pony: Ponies (genus Equus) are only ‘wild’ in the sense that the herds roam freely. At Castle Bottom National Nature Reserve semi-feral Exmoor Ponies feed on invasive grass, birch, and bracken helping manage the heathland.


Bat Notes

The ‘Red List 2020-2’ assessment of the Grey-headed Flying Fox is ‘Vulnerable’, the Proboscis Bat is ‘Near Threatened’, while all other featured species are ‘Least Concern’.

The gallery features the following three Old World Fruit Bats species placed in the genus Pteropus belonging to family Pteropodidae (Fruit Bat), categorised as megabats.

Grey-headed Flying Fox is an East Coast Australian endemic. Two flying-fox camps in New South Wales are at Kooloonbung Creek and Wingham Brush Nature Reserve where they roost in trees.

Seychelles Fruit Bat is an endemic resident species throughout the island group. Common in wooded areas where they feed on fruit and legally taken for human consumption.

Island Flying Fox occurs on smaller islands throughout Southeast Asia to New Guinea. I photographed this species on Tioman Island in the nineties using slide film.

The fourth OW Fruit Bats is the Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat. It is about a quarter the size of the Grey-headed Flying Fox. Several females in the roost were nurturing pups.

Proboscis Bat is a Neotropical native found near water. The photo shows a camouflaged individual roosting on a tree about two meters above the swamp water.

Land and Semiaquatic Carnivores, Ungulates and Bats Taxonomy

The Mammals Photo Album webpage describes higher-level taxonomy for the featured families placed in superorder Laurasiatheria.

Land and Semiaquatic Carnivores (Order Carnivora) splits into two suborders including Carnivora (Land Carnivores) with six families including the following two featured families:

(ii) Canidae (Foxes and Relatives),
(ii) Mustelidae (Otters and Relatives).

Ungulates (Order Artiodactyla) comprises ten families. The galley features images from the following four families:
(i) Cervidae (Deer),
(ii) Suidae (Hogs and Pigs),
(iii) Bovidae (Antelopes, Cattle, Gazelles, Goats, Sheep, and Relatives),
(iv) Equidae (Horses)

Bats (Order Chiroptera) contains eighteen families including photos from two families:
(i) Pteropodidae (Old World Fruit Bats),
(ii) Emballonuridae (Sheath-tailed Bats).